Chicago Manual Style


For those of you majoring in history, literature and the arts you may be required to use a form of Chicago Manual Documentation Style known as the Notes-Bibliography System.

The paper should be footnoted according to the standard CMS guidelines, double-spaced, in 12 pt font, with page numbers and one inch margins all around.  Certain professors will require both a title page and a bibliography page.

The Notes-Bibliography system includes either an endnote or footnote every time you use a source.  This can come in the form of a direct quote, paraphrase or summary.  Footnotes appear at the end of the page on which the source is referenced, while endnotes are grouped at the end of each chapter or at the end of the paper.

*Quick note: The first time you cite a source include the author’s full name; source title; and facts of publication (much like the bibliography).  If you cite the same source again, the note only needs to include the surname of the author, a shortened form of the title, and page number(s).

Also, in the Notes-Bibliography system, the bibliography provides an alphabetical list of all sources you use for your research paper.

Use the following guidelines to cite your sources.

Use the first format for your bibliography (B) and the second for the footnotes (FN). Items in your bibliography should be divided between primary and secondary sources and listed by author in alphabetical order. Your bibliography should be single spaced, with one blank line between entries. For additional information on how to cite sources, check the Chicago Manual of Style Online, or click here.

Bossy, John.  Christianity in the West 1400-1700.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1985.
) Bossy, Christianity West, 212.

Journal Article
Brown, Elizabeth A.R. “The Tyranny of a Construct: Feudalism and the Historians of Medieval Europe,” The American Historical Review 79 (1974): 1063-1088.
(FN) Brown, “The Tyranny,” 1080.

Article in a Book
DeLooz, Pierre. “Towards a sociological study of canonized sainthood in the Catholic Church,” in Saints and their Cults: Studies in Religious Sociology, Folklore and History, ed. Stephen Wilson, 189-216. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1983.
(FN) DeLooz, “Towards a sociological study,” 200.

Primary Source in Collection
Gregory VII. “First Deposition and Banning of Henry IV by Gregory VII,” in The Middle Ages: Volume I, Sources of Medieval History ed. Brian Tierney, 124-125. New York: McGraw Hill, 1999.
Gregory VII, “First Deposition,” 124.

Primary Source from the Internet [For secondary sources from the internet, such as articles from JSTOR, use the Journal Article format above].
James I of Aragón. “The Barcelona Navigation Act of 1227.” TheInternetMedievalSourcebook. (accessed March 25, 2011).
James I, “Navigation Act.”

Sources you should NOT use for your Paper
Class Notes
General Encyclopedias
Popular Magazine Articles
Popular History Books
Secondary Sources from the Internet including, but not limited to Wikipedia and other online encyclopedias. [As a general rule, do not cite secondary sources from the internet.  Academic articles, book reviews, etc. are kept online in databases like JStor or H-Net].


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