Footnotes and Endnotes


Footnotes and Endnotes are used to give credit to sources of any material borrowed, summarized or paraphrased. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section.

The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is where they are placed.  Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made, while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes.

When mentioning a work for the first time, a full and complete Footnote or Endnote entry must be made.

Only one sentence is used in a Footnote or Endnote citation, i.e., only one period or full stop is used at the end of any Footnote or Endnote citation. 1

Both, Footnotes and Endnotes, include author’s name, title, publishing house, city of publication, year of publication, and pages where you found the information. See example below.

First Footnote or Endnote example:

               2 Elie Wiesel, Night (New York: Bantam Books: 1960) 26.


Bibliography example:

Wiesel, Elie. Night. New York: Bantam Books, 1960.

 For a website, include author’s name of website, title of webpage, date it was published, web address, editors name if applicable, and date you accessed the page.  Web pages are tricky because even credible websites don’t always have all of this information.  See example for this blog post below.

 For Footnote or Endnote citations, if you should see the term ibid. being used, it just means that the citation is for the second mention of the same work with no intervening entries:2


1 “Are Search Guide,” 2008, (accessed March 26, 2011)



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