Author Archive

Footnotes and Endnotes

April 8, 2011

Footnotes and Endnotes are used to give credit to sources of any material borrowed, summarized or paraphrased. They are intended to refer readers to the exact pages of the works listed in the Works Cited, References, or Bibliography section.

The main difference between Footnotes and Endnotes is where they are placed.  Footnotes are placed numerically at the foot of the very same page where direct references are made, while Endnotes are placed numerically at the end of the essay on a separate page entitled Endnotes or Notes.

When mentioning a work for the first time, a full and complete Footnote or Endnote entry must be made.

Only one sentence is used in a Footnote or Endnote citation, i.e., only one period or full stop is used at the end of any Footnote or Endnote citation. 1

Both, Footnotes and Endnotes, include author’s name, title, publishing house, city of publication, year of publication, and pages where you found the information. See example below.

First Footnote or Endnote example:

               2 Elie Wiesel, Night (New York: Bantam Books: 1960) 26.


Bibliography example:

Wiesel, Elie. Night. New York: Bantam Books, 1960.

 For a website, include author’s name of website, title of webpage, date it was published, web address, editors name if applicable, and date you accessed the page.  Web pages are tricky because even credible websites don’t always have all of this information.  See example for this blog post below.

 For Footnote or Endnote citations, if you should see the term ibid. being used, it just means that the citation is for the second mention of the same work with no intervening entries:2


1 “Are Search Guide,” 2008, (accessed March 26, 2011)


Transitive and Intrasitive Verbs

February 27, 2011

Trying to think of some ways to clarify your paper, or to get into the nitty gritty of grammar? This is the perfect post for you! Let’s start with this: try to identifying the direct and indirect objects in your sentence. Not sure what I’m talking about? Read on!

Well, a direct object follows the transitive verb.  But what’s a transitive verb?

A transitive verb is something you do followed by who or what it is being done to. 

 An intransitive verb is a verb not proceeded by direct object–something you do but it is not mentioned who or what it is being done to.

 Example: Jordan returned the car.            Transitive (T) verb: returned//Direct object (DO) = the car

    Serra returned before supper.  Intransitive (I): returned, but with no direct object.

 Now you try:  Identify the underlined verb as transitive (T) or intransitive (I).  If transitive identify the direct object.

  1. Smokey the bear hates forest fires. 
  2. Little Jennifer found the missing key.
  3. Wilhelmina collects tropical fish.
  4. The Hernandez family eats outdoors in the summer.
  5. The irate customer spoke angrily.


  1. Answers: 1(T) direct object = “forest fires” , 2 (T) direct object = “key”, 3 (T) direct object = “fish”, 4 (I) What do they eat while outdoors?, 5 (I) Who did he speak to?

 Now, let’s try the indirect-object inversion technique.

  • Neal sent the package to Krystal.
  • Transitive verb = sent
  • Direct object = the package
  • Indirect Object=  Krystal
  • Now switch the two and you’ll get a new sentence like, Neal sent Krystal the package.
  • Note: This technique does not work if there is no indirect object.  For example, you cannot rearrange the sentence: She bought a watch for forty dollars. You could not say, though: She bought forty dollars a watch.

 Now, you try.  Rewrite the following sentences, if you can.  First, identify the indirect object. Remember: If there is no indirect object, then it cannot be rewritten!

    • Mrs. Smith gave a new dress to her daughter.
    • The commissioner sent it to the new champion.
    • Ned handed a hundred dollars to his bookie.
    • Mr. Jones bought it for his grandson.

Answers: 1) Mrs. Smith gave her daughter a new dress.  2) No (INDO). 3) Ned handed his bookie a hundred dollars.  4) No (INDO)

Why punctuation matters

February 11, 2011

Why is punctuation so important?

  • Ambiguity: Women without her man is a savage.
    • A comma can radically change the meaning of a sentence.  Who is the savage?
    • Women, without her man, is a savage.
    • Women: without her, man is a savage.


  • I would like to thank my parents Sinead O’Connor and the Pope.
    • Did Sinead O’Connor and the Pope have a baby?!?  How many people are being thanked?
    • I would like to thank my parents, Sinead O’Connor, and the Pope.
  • To build a tree house you need an imaginative child and four support beams all nailed directly to the tree.
    • What is happening to this baby?  How do you build a tree house?

To build a tree house you need an imaginative child, and four support beams all nailed directly to the tree.